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Synapsids are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes. They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra, an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each.

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Therapsida 1.jpgTherapsida - Mammal's ancestors Pelycosauria 1.jpgPelycosauria - Mammal-like reptiles


Among the features that distinguish mammals from the other amniotes, the reptiles and the birds, are hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands in females, and a neocortex (a region of the brain). The mammalian brain regulates body temperature and the circulatory system, including the four-chambered heart. The basic body type is a four-legged land-borne animal, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in the trees, or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the Eutheria, have a placenta which feeds the offspring during pregnancy.

Except for the five species of monotremes (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young.

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Eutheria 1.jpgEutheria - Placental mammals Metatheria 1.jpgMetatheria - Marsupials
Tingamarra.jpgTingamarra Yingabalanara.jpgYingabalanara
Monotremata 1.jpgMonotremata - Platypus and kins Dryolestida 1.jpgExtinct early mammals