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Priapulida is a phylum of marine worms. The name of the phylum relates to the Greek god of fertility, because their general shape, and their extensible spiny introvert (eversible proboscis) may recall the shape of a penis. They live in the mud, which they eat, in comparatively shallow waters up to 90 metres (300 ft). Some species show a remarkable tolerance for hydrogen sulfide and anoxia. They feed on slow-moving invertebrates, such as polychaete worms.

Priapulid-like fossils are known at least as far back as the Middle Cambrian. They were likely major predators of the Cambrian period. However, crown-group priapulids cannot be recognized until the Carboniferous. Only sixteen extant species of priapulid worms are known.

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phylum Priapulida Ottoia is the most abundant priapulid of the Cambrian Burgess Shale formation of British Columbia and Wheeler Shale formation of Utah dating from the Mid-Cambrian of around 550 million years ago.

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stem-group Priapulida
class Archaeopriapulida
genus Ottoia